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2019-06-06

Treatment of cirrhosis of the liver with mesenchymal stem cells

Stem cells are special cells that can transform into any other body cells - bones, muscles, heart, liver, etc. In the case of mass cell destruction (due to illness or injury), mesenchymal stem cells activate and new cells are formed from them instead of damaged ones.

  • Stem cells were opened more than 100 years ago.
  • The most significant cells for the treatment and rejuvenation - mesenchymal, obtained from the bone marrow of young and healthy donors.
  • All organs and tissues grow out of mesenchymal cells.
  • In 10 years 30% of patients of clinics will receive injections of mesenchymal stem cells.

The main types of stem cells

1. Embryonic, fetal (from fetus) and adult ones.

Adult cells able to "recognize" damaged cells and restore them. Also, they are able to activate their own IC. Therefore, for the treatment of adults used SC.

2. Mesenchymal (multipotent), oligo or unipotent (hemapoetic, for example).

The cells of most organs and tissues can form from mesenchymal cells, and only blood cells from hemapoietic cells. Therefore, it is better to use mesenchymal stem cells for treatment.

3. Stem cells derived from adipose or bone marrow tissue.

The best properties have ones obtained from bone marrow. Bone marrow cells are 4 times more active and more efficient. Being in the bone, they are most protected from external influences.

4. Source - own and donor.

The use of cells from young healthy donors is most effective today.

Mechanism of action

When injected into the body, donor stem cells not only restore damaged tissues, but also produce biologically active substances that stimulate their own stem cells and, thereby, renew the cellular composition of the diseased organ. The result is a rapid metabolism of liver toxins and stabilization of hemodynamic parameters, which is marked by a significant improvement in blood biochemical parameters (albumin, bilirubin, ALT, AST).

Mesenchymal stem cells have a unique feature - after an injection to the patient, they independently migrate to the affected areas in the body. This is due to the presence in them of special chemoreceptors, similar to those ones known in leukocytes. Thus, the stem cells themselves find the places requiring treatment.

It has also been proven that mesenchymal stem cells inhibit the proliferation of hepatic stellate cells, called ITO cells. This discovery has been successfully used in cell therapy for liver fibrosis, since It is known that it is precisely ITO cells that are activated in the early stages of fibrogenesis.

Liver

The liver is a vital organ located in the abdominal cavity below the diaphragm and performing many functions.

  • Detoxification (neutralization) of various harmful substances coming from food, allergens, toxins and other toxic substances formed in the process of life activity;
  • Participation in the processes of digestion, namely: providing the body's energy needs with glucose and converting various energy sources (free fatty acids, amino acids, etc.) into glucose;
  • Replenishment and storage of quickly mobilized energy reserves in the form of glycogen reserves, vitamins A, D, B12, Fe, Cu, Co, etc.,
  • Participation in the metabolism of vitamins A, B, C, D, E, K, PP and folic acid;
  • Synthesis of proteins, fats, hormones, blood;
  • Synthesis of bile.

Liver cells are updated every 300-500 days. If you do not use alcohol, limit the consumption of fatty, spicy, fast food, drugs, then the liver can be completely cleaned after 8 weeks. By the way, the liver is the only organ in our body that can fully cope with the loss of 75% of its tissue.

Cirrhosis

Cirrhosis is a complication of many liver diseases, which is characterized by a change in the structure of the liver and its function. In this chronic disease, hepatocytes (cells of the liver parenchyma) lose their functionality and are replaced by scar (connective tissue).

The main causes of cirrhosis of the liver are:

  • Chronic alcoholism
  • Viral hepatitis B, C, D
  • Metabolic disorders and some hereditary diseases
  • The action of some toxins and drugs
  • Diseases of the biliary tract and parasites

Cell therapy for cirrhosis

Intravenous stem cell injection has been proposed relatively recently and has now become the most promising therapy for liver disease.

Numerous studies have demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells are capable of differentiating into functional liver cells, the hepatocytes. After that, the affected liver parenchyma is regenerated by replacing the diseased cells with healthy ones.

Currently, many countries already have clinics specialized in stem cells therapy, so the most important thing in cell therapy for cirrhosis is to start treatment as soon as possible, as this gives a greater chance of restoring the liver tissue. Treatment of liver cirrhosis with stem cells is based on their unique property — the ability to replace damaged tissue cells.

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