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Otolaryngology (ENT)

Otolaryngology (ENT)

In otolaryngology, MedicaTour collaborates with both the largest Russian medical center for otolaryngology and with private clinics in more than 30 countries.

Otitis media

Otitis media is called inflammation of the labyrinth - the liquid-filled semicircular canals of the inner ear, which are responsible for determining the position of the body and its movements and help the brain maintain balance and balance. This condition most often occurs as a result of the action of the virus, but can also be caused by a bacterial infection that has spread from the middle ear (otitis media), meningitis, or after surgery.

Symptoms of otitis media are dizziness with a sense of rotation; dizziness, especially with head movements; loss of balance; nausea and vomiting.

With bacterial internal otitis, antibiotics are taken. Surgical drainage is necessary if the condition is accompanied by severe otitis media.

Meniere's disease

Meniere's disease is a disease whose cause is unknown, characterized by periodic bouts of dizziness with a sense of rotation and hearing loss. Its first symptom is ringing or wheezing in the ears (ringing in the ears). It is followed by debilitating dizziness with a sense of rotation, nausea and vomiting, which can last up to 24 hours. A feeling of pressure or stuffiness in the ears may occur. Continuous hearing loss has been observed throughout. You can get rid of dizziness with a sense of rotation for some time with the help of medications, for a longer period - by surgical cutting of the nerves of the semicircular canals, the balance organs located in the inner ear.

Tinnitus

Tinnitus is a condition where a person hears a sound in one or both ears that does not come from outside.

Tinnitus can be a symptom of a number of possible conditions. Most often, it is associated with ear damage due to loud sound or age-related hearing loss, and may follow a middle ear infection.

A hissing sound can mean vascular problems. Moreover, the inner ear can be damaged by prolonged use of medications.

Tinnitus can also be caused by tumors on the vestibulo-cochlear nerve or its injuries with the temporomandibular joint; otosclerosis, hardening of the bones of the middle ear; head injury and neck damage; and Meniere's disease.

The treatment of this condition does not exist, but its aggravation can be prevented; loud sounds and the use of drugs should be avoided. Tinnitus can be blocked by more pleasant sounds, for example, a radio or a pleasantly ticking clock; people who use hearing aids testify that this makes tinnitus less intrusive. Some people have found that tinnitus intensifies in them with excitement and stress.

Mastoiditis

Inflammation of the air-filled spaces in the mastoid of the temporal bone behind the ear can follow the improper treatment of middle ear inflammation (otitis media). Acute mastoiditis is treated with antibiotics. However, if the infection becomes chronic, the patient complains of severe pain behind the ear, accompanied by fever, local redness and swelling. Suitable antibiotics, selected according to the nature of the middle ear inflammation, keep the infection under control, but most often surgery is needed to make an opening in this area. The diagnosis is made clinically, and confirmed by x-ray and computed tomography.

Otitis media

Otitis media is inflammation of the middle ear. It is usually caused by a bacterial infection that enters the middle ear from the throat through the Eustachian tubes. It is associated with a throat infection, such as a typical cold or tonsillitis. The patient, as a rule, the child has fever, hearing loss in the affected ear and severe ear pain as a result of accumulation of pus in the middle ear, which can accumulate until it reaches the eardrum. If this happens, he goes out and the pain subsides. These symptoms are accompanied by diarrhea, vomiting, and in children they can be more severe than ear pain.

Treatment is with painkillers and antibiotics. If the eardrum is torn or if it has been surgically opened and pus is excreted, the ear must be kept clean and dry until the eardrum heals. Sometimes it is necessary to remove pus, which is under pressure, by cutting the eardrum (myringotomy). If chronic otitis media is not treated, it can lead to deafness.

Otitis externa

Otitis externa is an inflammation of the external ear, the skin of the external auditory canal. Symptoms of external otitis media include tingling, aggravated pain in the ears, delayed hearing loss, and (sometimes) deafness. It is caused by a bacterial or fungal infection that occurs for a number of reasons, including swimming in contaminated water, a scratch in the ear, prolonged use of the ear plug, or excessive sweating. It can also occur in people with eczema or diabetes.

External otitis media is treated in most cases with antibacterial ear drops, drugs containing cortisone are used to control inflammation. In case of severe infection, they take oral antibiotics. Any dead tissue, pus or earwax should only be removed by a specialist.

Otosclerosis

Otosclerosis is a middle ear disease that leads to progressive deafness. It is caused by the gradual formation of abnormal cancellous bone tissue around one of the small bones of the middle ear. An abnormal bone impedes the vibration of the stapes, and therefore the transmission of sound vibrations from the eardrum to the inner ear. The result is progressive deafness and sometimes tinnitus. In the end, both ears are affected. Otosclerosis is most common among women aged 15 to 30 years; the impetus for it can serve as a pregnancy.

This condition is treated with surgical stapedectomy, in which the affected stapes is replaced by a prosthesis that restores hearing. An alternative option for surgery is a hearing aid.

Rhinitis

Rhinitis is an inflammation of the mucous membrane that lines the nose, usually accompanied by excessive production of watery or viscous mucus. At the same time, breathing through the respiratory tract is difficult, as they become smaller due to accumulations of mucus. Symptoms of rhinitis are treated with nasal sprays or oral medications that compress blood vessels to normal sizes, freeing the airways. These medicines should be taken for several days, since only their prolonged use can relieve symptoms of congestion. If the mucous membrane of the membrane is infected, the nasal mucus is yellowish and looks like pus, and the nose may bleed suddenly.

Allergic rhinitis occurs as a result of inhalation of substances to which the body of a given person is especially sensitive, and it does not matter whether there has been an allergic reaction to this substance before or not. The level of mucus production rises, the eyes turn red and irritation appears. In severe cases, a feeling of heaviness in the chest occurs and breathing is difficult. These changes are caused by the body's production of histamine, a substance necessary to combat invading organisms.

Treatment with antihistamines can relieve symptoms, but corticosteroids will be needed if the body reacts more violently.

Sinusitis

Paranasal sinuses - cavities in the bones around the eye and nose. These cavities are lined with mucous membranes. In the normal state, mucus constantly moves from the sinuses to the nose. With sinusitis, the sinuses become inflamed and filled with mucus or pus, causing headaches or slight breathing problems.

Acute sinusitis is a disease that causes a swelling of the nasal membrane, such as a viral respiratory infection or allergic rhinitis. The tumor does not allow mucus to leave the sinuses normally, and then infection with a virus, bacteria or fungus follows. Swimming or dipping the head in water can only help bacteria enter the sinus, causing irritation and infection. Dental diseases, such as an abscess, can also be a cause of sinusitis.

Other symptoms of sinusitis include headache, the location of which depends on which sinuses are infected. Pain can be felt in the front of the head or around the eyes, on the forehead and cheeks, or on the upper wall of the mouth and in the roots of the teeth. The pain is caused by the accumulation of unexcited fluid, which puts pressure on the sinuses. Nasal discharge is yellowish-green, accompanied by high fever.

If this condition is caused by a bacterial infection, sinusitis is treated with antibiotics. Oral and nasal decongestants help break through sinusitis, although drops and nasal sprays should be applied temporarily, because their prolonged use will damage the lining of the nose.

If sinusitis does not go away or resumes, this condition is called chronic sinusitis. It is less common than normal sinusitis, and can be caused by curvature of the nasal septum and other damage to the nose. Chronic sinusitis is also treated with antibiotics and steroids or chromoglycate nasal sprays.

Nasal polyps

Nasal polyps are caused by a chronic infection or allergy in the nose (allergic rhinitis). They lead to the appearance of discharge from the nose and chronic difficulty in breathing. Nasal polyps are easily removed during a small operation, which is performed under local anesthesia. They can also be treated with oral steroids.